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How prices are formed

Gasoline

Production of the fuel you use today started 10 years ago.

Petrobras Share

Get to know the journey of Oil to understand the price of gasoline in Brazil.

Producing the fuel you use today starts with the discovery of reservoirs and the construction and installation of platforms up to 300 km from the coast, to extract the oil that is up to 7 thousand meters deep. From there, the oil goes to refineries, where it is transformed into derivatives, including gasoline. 

The data are public, and you can consult them whenever you want, here or on the ANP website.

Taxes

After the refinery, the gasoline is sold to distributors, and taxes are included.

After being produced, the fuels are sold to distributors, at which time the  taxes on the fuel are added. The federal tax on gasoline is formed by CIDE, PIS/PASEP and COFINS.¹  
 
In addition to them, the state tax is also added, in this case, the ICMS, which is incorporated into the amount charged at refineries following the tax substitution rule and considering the Weighted Average Price to the Final Consumer (PMPF) defined by the States. 

Value of Federal Taxes:

R$ 0.0

Value of ICMS:

R$ 0.84

1. CIDE and PIS/COFINS levied on the sale of gasoline A equals to R$ 0.8925 per liter; PIS/COFINS levied on the sale of anhydrous ethanol equals to R$ 0.1309 per liter. 

Anhydrous ethanol share

Now, distributors add anhydrous ethanol to resell the product to consumers.

The addition of ethanol is a legal obligation for fuel distributors. Today, Law No. 8,723, of 1993, authorizes the percentage of 27% of anhydrous ethanol in regular gasoline and the percentage of 25% in premium gasoline.² The price of ethanol³ is freely negotiated between distributors and producing plants. 

Price of the share of anhydrous ethanol:

R$ 0.94

2. Composição considerada: 73% gasolina A e 27% etanol anidro (desde 16/03/2015, o teor de álcool anidro na gasolina comum e aditivada é de 27%. O teor adicionado à gasolina premium é de 25%. 3. Valor de referência do etanol anidro R$ 3.47 por litro. Fonte: Cepea/USP.

Distribution and resale

Finally, distributors and dealers sell gasoline at gas stations.

At this stage, distributors and dealers add their own costs and profit margin.⁴ Under the 1997 Petroleum Law, pricing at all stages of the chain is free. 

Value of distribution and resale:

R$ 1.08

4. The share of distribution and resale margins is estimated.

As you can see, Petrobras⁵ is responsible for a part of the price of your fuel, but other factors enter into the calculation of the price⁶ that reaches you. 
 

Average price > R$

5.65

R$ 1.08

( 19.1%)

Distribution and resale

R$ 0.94

( 16.6%)

Portion of anhydrous ethanol

R$ 0.84

( 14.8%)

ICMS

R$ 0.0

( 0.0%)

Federal taxes

R$ 2.8

( 49.6%)

Petrobras Share

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Average price in Brazil: R$ 5.74

5. Petrobras elaboration based on data from ANP and CEPEA/USP, based on average prices by Petrobras (gasoline A) and average prices to the final consumer (gasoline C) in the 26 states and the Federal District (DF). 

6. Period of collection of 24/07/2022 to 30/07/2022

*See price by state

*States where Petrobras has supply points for distributors
Ver formação de preço

Price of gasoline at the Refinery

(Petrobras share)

2.8

Price with Taxes:

3.64

Price with anhydrous ethanol:

4.57

Final price with distributor and resale margin:

5.65

Preço Final com ICMS

(acréscimo de 26,3% no valor)

6,66

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Understand how prices are formed

Gasolina

Diesel

Cooking gas (GLP)

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